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General information about the drug

Diseases of the kidneys and urinary tract (inflammatory, metabolic and extrarenal origin) subsequently lead to impaired elimination of toxic substances and their metabolites from the body. thanks to the kidneys, the body regulates blood pressure, and with their disease, it is possible to develop pathologies of the cardiovascular system, diabetes mellitus and other disorders. inflammatory diseases of the kidneys of both descending and ascending etiology can cause the development of acute and chronic renal failure - serious complications, in severe cases leading to death.

Therefore, it is especially important to identify the pathology of the kidneys and urinary tract in the early stages of the disease. So, the main symptoms of these diseases are back pain, chills, impaired urination and pain during urination, swelling, impaired blood pressure. And the main reasons for the development of kidney and urinary system diseases are hypothermia, alcohol consumption, pathogenic microorganisms, sudden changes in temperature, frequent stress and overwork, taking antibiotics and, as a result, dysbiosis.

As a rule, anti-inflammatory therapy of the urinary system involves the use of antibiotics. However, an important addition to antibiotic therapy is phytotherapeutic correction using biologically active food additives and herbs. An affordable drug for the treatment of kidney and urinary system diseases is considered Nephrophyte - collection of herbs with antispasmodic, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial diuretic, nitrogen-releasing and mild saluretic effect (helps to some extent the removal of salts). According to the ATC classification, it belongs to the group of drugs used in urology. Nephrophyte It helps to eliminate the end products of metabolism from the body, maintain the acid-base balance of the internal environment, and takes part in the process of intermediate metabolism (gluconeogenesis, peptide and amino acid breakdown).

Active components of Nephrophyte and their action

Part Nephrophyte includes a complex of plants widely used in traditional medicine.

Elderberry flowers (Sambucus nigra). The plant belongs to the family Honeysuckle. The plant has a long ethnobotanical history in many different cultures as an antimicrobial agent and is currently one of the most used medicinal plants in the world. The importance of its use in uro and nephrological practice is due to diuretic, diaphoretic, laxative effects, as well as the ability to reduce the severity of inflammation (Álvarez C.A. et al., 2018; Elderflower. Vitamins Supplements, 2019; Anisimov A.M., 2019). The active substances that make up the flowers of black elderberry are active against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

The flowers of black elderberry contain flavonoids (quercetin, rutin, isocvercitin, kempferol, astragaline, nicotiflorin, hyperoside), triterpenes, chlorogenic acid, essential oils, sterols, potassium, tannin, pectin, glucose, etc. (European medicine agency, 2018; Anisimov A.M., 2019). Elderberry flowers are generally safe when used in small quantities. However, they can lower blood glucose, which is important when treating patients with diabetes using sugar-lowering drugs (glimepiride, pioglitazone, rosiglitazone, chlorpropamide, glipizide, tolbutamide) or insulin (Elderflower. Vitamins Supplements, 2019).

As a result of studies, it was found that biomarkers of the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases and liver and kidney function in women in the postmenopausal period do not change after taking elderberry extract for 12 weeks. Medicinal plant material (LRS) is rich in anthocyanins (Curtis P.J. et al., 2009).

Leaves of large plantain (Plantago major) have anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, bacteriostatic (against staphylococci, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, beta-hemolytic streptococcus), diuretic properties, which leads to their use in inflammation of the bladder and kidney diseases. Leaves of large plantain contain polysaccharides, mucus, aucubin, carotenoids, pectins, choline, etc. (radar, plantain large leaves (Plantaginis majoris folia), 2019). Plantago major leaves are recommended for urinary retention, hematuria, as well as for inflammation of the bladder and kidneys. Active substances contained in LRS can inhibit the activity of the angiotensin-converting enzyme. In one study, it was found that the extract from the leaves of plantain greater than allopurinol and potassium citrate, inhibits the size of crystals of calcium oxalate in vitro and can be used in the treatment of urolithiasis (Najafian Y. et al., 2018).

The grass of common knotweed (Polygonum aviculare) has anti-inflammatory, diuretic properties, prevents the appearance of stones and sand in the kidneys, improves urine filtration. In addition, knotweed grass has antioxidant, antimicrobial (including antiviral) and antifungal effects. Grass is rich in vitamin E, fiber, resins, pectin, ash, silicon, anthraquinones, calcium, iron, zinc, wax, glycoside, avicularin. The complex of biologically active substances that make up the knotweed also provides diaphoretic, wound healing, tonic, analgesic effects, the ability to optimize metabolism in the metabolic syndrome, including diabetes and obesity, strengthens the state of the capillary walls (Dong X. et al., 2014). Infusion of herbs is used for gout and other disorders of salt metabolism, polyarthritis, as an antipyretic.

Horsetail grass (Equiseti arvensis) - diuretic, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, detoxification (removes lead), hemostatic. The horsetail grass contains derivatives of hydroquinone (arbutin, methyl arbutin, etc.), polyphenols (tannins), phenolic acids (gallic, p-coumaric and syric acids), flavonoids (hyperoside, quercetrin, isoquercetrin, myricetin), iridoid glucose, et al. (Europian medicines agensy, 2016). In addition, flint substances form colloids in the urine that prevent stone formation.

The anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial, analgesic, and antitumor properties of the grass of the shepherd’s bag (Capsella bursa pastoris) allow it to be used to treat inflammation of the bladder. It is also recommended for kidney stones and renal colic. The grass of the shepherd’s bag is rich in flavonoids (quercetin, tricin, diosmethine, kempferol, luteolin, hesperitin and glycoside derivatives, etc.), tannins, amines (choline, acetylcholine, histamine), saponin, resin, organic acids and other essential oils. Capsule bursa pastoris has proven to be a potentially useful biomonitor of 4 heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Zn and Cu), used to monitor contaminated urban areas (Aksoy, 1999; European medicine agency, 2011).

Corn silk (Zea maydis) is a herb traditionally used by Chinese and Native Americans to treat many diseases. It is also used as part of traditional medicine in many countries (Turkey, USA, France). The potential use of this LRS as an antioxidant and diuretic drug has been reported in several studies. The potential use of this LRS in nephrology and urology is closely related to the properties and mechanism of action of biologically active plant components, such as flavonoids and terpenoids (Hasanudin K et al., 2012).

Dandelion root (Taraxacum officinale) belongs to the Asteraceae family, originally from Europe, but is widespread in the warmer temperate zones of the Northern Hemisphere. Dandelion is commonly used as plant food in several regions, where it is also used in herbal medicine.Literature data indicate its antioxidant, diuretic, anti-inflammatory, anti-carcinogenic, analgesic, and choleretic activity (LRS contains flavonoids, hydroxycinnamic acids, sesquiterpene lactone inositol and other substances). Dandelion root should not be used in patients with renal failure, diabetes mellitus and / or heart failure (Schütz K. et al., 2006; European medicine agency, 2009; González-Castejón M. et al. 2012; Jedrejek D. et al., 2019; Molinu MG et al., 2019).

Burdock root (Arctium lappa) is a plant that grows in North Asia, Europe and the United States. Quercetin, luteolin and phenolic acids contained in it are powerful antioxidants. Active substances located in the root of burdock help to eliminate toxins from the blood, increase blood circulation. A diuretic effect is characteristic of LRS, therefore, it is not taken when the body is dehydrated and when taking other diuretic drugs. Burdock root contains essential oils, aliphatic bicarbonates, sesquiterpenes (essential oil, arctiol, dehydrofukinone, eremofilen), triterpenes (free terpene alcohols, free sterols, triterpene esters), fatty acids, coffee and ascorbic acids (European medicine agency, 2010) .

Bearberry leaves (Uvae ursi) are prescribed as part of the complex therapy of kidney and urinary tract diseases. A decoction of bearberry leaves has a mild antiseptic and laxative effect. LRS contains derivatives of hydroquinone (arbutin), polyphenols, phenolic acids, flavonoid (hyperoside), resins, and others. Bearberry bear diuretic and antiseptic properties are characteristic. Antibacterial activity is manifested in connection with the presence of arbutin and hydroquinone in the leaves. However, drugs containing bearberry leaves are not recommended during pregnancy (European medicines agency, 2018).

Peppermint leaves (Menthae piperitae) contain menthol, terpinoids, tannins, flavonoids, rutin and diosmin, hesperidin, narurutin, rosmarinic and caffeic acids. Peppermint infusion has a sedative, antispasmodic, carminative, choleretic, locally irritating, analgesic effect. In traditional medicine, a decoction of mint leaves is used for coughing and colds, to alleviate the symptoms of localized muscle pain, and symptomatic relief of localized itching on intact skin (European medicines agency, 2012). Peppermint leaves can relieve headaches and improve appetite. There is also information about the antihypertensive effect of mint leaves (Krogh L., 1957). Menthae piperitae leaf extracts have antibacterial and antiviral activity in vitro. The addition of ground leaves to the agar medium inhibits the growth of Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus at concentrations of 0.1–2.0% (WHO Monographs on Selected Medicinal Plants - Volume 2, 2004). The therapeutic effect of mint is due to the presence of menthol in it.

Chamomile flowers (Chamomillae officinalis) contain essential oils: proazulene, azulene, antemisic acid, flavonoids (apigenin, luteolin) and other substances. LRS has anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic and antimicrobial effects, which allows the use of chamomile flowers both in gastroenterology, and in nephrology, urology. In particular, chamomile flowers are used for gastrointestinal diseases, various lesions of the oral mucosa, and upper respiratory tract (European medicines agency, 2018).

Grass of a string (Bidens tripartita) is an LRS widely distributed throughout the world. The plant contains a large number of active components, which allows it to be widely used. The active substances that make up the series improve metabolism, digestion, enhance sweating, and have a diuretic effect. Manganese, which is part of the series, is involved in the processes of hematopoiesis and the functioning of the endocrine glands. LRS contains polysaccharides, flavonoids, carotenoids (wound healing and anti-inflammatory effects), polyphenols (bactericidal properties), bitterness, essential oil, ascorbic acid. The grass exhibits sedative, anti-allergic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and antitumor effects and can be used in nephrological practice. There is information in the literature that luteolin, which is part of the active ingredients of the series, prevents the development of cancer by inhibiting cell adhesion and invasion (Lee W.J. et al., 2006).It was found that the polyines detected in the plant are a series of hairy (B. Pilosa), have an antitumor effect (Bartolome A.P. et al., 2013).

Application restrictions

Nephrophyte is contraindicated in individuals with gastric diseases accompanied by increased secretion, for patients with chronic renal failure, obstructive jaundice, torboflebit; with increased sensitivity to the components of the drug. Nephrophyte do not prescribe to children under the age of 7 years. The collection should not be prescribed to patients with increased blood coagulability and BA patients. Patients with microangiopathies associated with diabetes mellitus need to constantly monitor their uncharacteristic renal symptoms.

Picking herbs Nephrophyte - a drug for use in combination therapy of kidney and urinary tract diseases, provides antimicrobial, antispasmodic, sedative, anti-inflammatory effects. The drug, thanks to a competent combination of plant components, provides a complex effect in inflammatory diseases of the kidneys and urinary tract.