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Composition:


active ingredient: furazolidone;


1 tablet contains furazolidone 0.05 g (50 mg);


excipients: potato starch; lactose monohydrate; colloidal anhydrous silicon dioxide; calcium stearate.


Dosage form. Pills.


Basic physical and chemical properties: tablets of yellow or greenish-yellow color, with a flat surface and chamfer.


Pharmacotherapeutic group.


Antimicrobial and antiseptic agents. Furazolidone. ATX code G01A X06.


Pharmacological properties.


Pharmacodynamics.


Furazolidone is an antimicrobial and antiprotozoal agent, a derivative of nitrofuran. Disrupts the process of cellular respiration of bacteria, inhibits the biosynthesis of nucleic acids. Depending on the concentration, it shows a bacteriostatic or bactericidal effect. It is active against Gram-negative rods (Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Shigella, Proteus, Klebsiella, Citrobacter), gram-positive cocci (streptococci, staphylococci), protozoa (giardia, Trichomonas). Among the pathogens of intestinal infections, the most sensitive are the pathogens of dysentery, typhoid and paratyphoid. It has a weak effect on pathogens of purulent and anaerobic infection. Resistance to furazolidone develops slowly. Activates phagocytosis, does not suppress the immune system.


Pharmacokinetics.


When taken orally, it is rapidly absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract and distributed to tissues, including the central nervous system. The therapeutic concentration in the blood is maintained for 4-6 hours. It does not form high concentrations in the blood and tissues (including the kidneys), since it is largely rapidly metabolized in the liver, turning into an amino derivative. The main route of elimination is renal excretion (65 %). It is partially excreted in bile, reaching high concentrations in the intestinal lumen, which allows it to be used for intestinal infections. In renal failure, the drug accumulates in the blood due to slowing excretion.


Clinical characteristics.


Indications.


Bacillary dysentery, paratyphoid, food toxicoinfection, enterocolitis, giardiasis, Trichomonas colpitis.


Contraindications.


End-stage chronic renal failure, impaired liver function, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, hypersensitivity to any components of the drug and Nitrofurans.


Interactions with other drugs and other types of interactions.


When furazolidone is co-administered with monoamine oxidase inhibitors, sympathomimetics, tricyclic antidepressants, and foods containing tyramine, there is a risk of developing a hypertensive crisis. When combined with chloramphenicol and ristomycin, the risk of hematopoiesis suppression increases.


When furazolidone is co-administered with amitriptyline, toxic psychosis may occur.


Aminoglycosides and tetracycline enhance the antimicrobial effect of furazolidone.


Drugs that alkalize the urine (sodium bicarbonate, sodium bicarbonate, acetazolamide), reduce the effect of furazolidone, increasing its excretion in the urine; drugs that acidify the urine, increase the effect of the drug.


Sensitizes the body to alcohol. Due to the risk of disulfiram-like reactions, alcohol should not be consumed during furazolidone therapy and for 4 days after discontinuation.


Application features.


The risk of peripheral polyneuropathies increases with anemia, diabetes mellitus, electrolyte imbalance, hypovitaminosis B.


For the Prevention of neuritis with prolonged use, furazolidone can be combined with B vitamins.


Furazolidone is a monoamine oxidase inhibitor, and the same safety measures should be taken when using it as when using other monoamine oxidase inhibitors.


Due to the risk of high blood pressure and the development of mental disorders, it is recommended to exclude from the diet foods containing tyramine and other vasoconstrictor amines (cottage cheese, cream, coffee, chocolate, smoked meat).


Do not take medications for the treatment of coughs and colds at the same time as furazolidone. The drug contains lactose, so it should not be used in patients with rare hereditary forms of galactose intolerance, lactase deficiency or glucose-galactose malabsorption syndrome.


Use during pregnancy or lactation.


Taking the drug during pregnancy is contraindicated. Breast-feeding should be discontinued for the duration of treatment with the drug.


Ability to influence the reaction rate when driving vehicles or other mechanisms.


Do not use the drug while driving vehicles or working with potentially dangerous mechanisms, as the use of the drug may reduce concentration, dizziness, drowsiness.


Dosage and administration.


Adults and children over 8 years of age should use orally after meals, washed down with a large amount of liquid (100-200 ML).


For bacillary dysentery, paratyphoid, food toxicoinfection, adults should be prescribed 2 Tablets (0.1 g) 4 times a day for 5-7 days or in cycles of 3-6 days with an interval of 3-4 days. Children over 8 years of age should be prescribed the drug at the rate of 6-7 mg/kg of body weight per day; the daily dose should be divided into 4 doses (if it is necessary to take a dose of less than 50 mg, prescribe other furazolidone preparations in the appropriate dosage form and dosage). The duration of treatment is 5-7 days, depending on the severity of the disease, effectiveness and sensitivity to therapy.


With giardiasis, adults should be prescribed 2 Tablets (0.1 g) 4 times a day; children over 8 years of age should be prescribed the drug at the rate of 6 mg/kg of body weight per day in 3-4 doses. The course of treatment is 5-7 days.


In the treatment of Trichomonas infections, adults should be prescribed 2 Tablets (0.1 g) 3-4 times a day for 3-4 days.


With colpitis, treatment should be carried out in combination. Inside, Take 2 Tablets (0.1 g) of the drug 3-4 times a day for 3 days. At the same time, a powder containing furazolidone with lactose should be inserted into the vagina, and suppositories with the drug should be inserted into the rectum.


The highest doses for adults: single – 4 tablets (0.2 g), daily – 16 tablets (0.8 g). Furazolidone is not recommended for more than 7 days.


Children.


Furazolidone in this dosage form should not be used in children under 8 years of age.


Overdose.


Symptoms: acute toxic hepatitis, hemolytic or megaloblastic anemia, leukopenia, polyneuritis.


Treatment: withdrawal of the drug, gastric lavage, use of antihistamines, calcium chloride, activated charcoal, B vitamins, saline laxatives, correction of the water-salt balance: symptomatic therapy aimed at maintaining vital functions. There is no specific antidote.


Adverse reactions.


From the gastrointestinal tract: abdominal pain, nausea, bitterness in the mouth, lack of appetite, vomiting, diarrhea, anorexia, cholestasis, hepatotoxicity.


From the central nervous system: headache, drowsiness, dizziness, peripheral neuropathies.


From the blood system: rarely-leukopenia, agranulocytosis, hemolysis in individuals with glucose - 6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency.


From the immune system: allergic reactions, including pruritus, hyperemia of the skin, urticaria, rashes on the skin of the face, trunk and lower extremities, including spotty papular, angioedema.


Others: hypoglycemia, orthostatic hypotension, dark yellow urine staining, fever, weakness, general malaise.


From the respiratory system: rarely – acute pulmonary reactions.

Tags: Furazolidone