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Protargol. the active substance is silver proteinate, in English - silver proteinate, in Latin - argentum proteinicum. PABX code ro1a x10. from a pharmacological point of view, it is an antiseptic and a disinfectant; from a pharmacotherapeutic point of view, it is other means for the treatment of diseases of the nasal cavity.

Silver proteinate is a slightly astringent and bitter powder of brown or tan. There is no smell. This substance easily dissolves in water, but it is completely insoluble in chloroform, ether, and also in alcohol. Silver in this chemical compound contains from 7.8 to 8.3%.

Why so interesting Protargol (the active substance is silver proteinate), that even in modern medicine did he find a place?

The history of Protargol

If we turn to the history of mankind, you can find many cases of the use of silver compounds in medicine and simply in human life. It is enough to say that already in the 5th century BC, ancestors made vessels of silver for storing food and various drinks in them. It has long been noticed that water from rivers or lakes, having been stored for a certain time in these vessels, acquired other properties and became safe for use, thanks to the bactericidal properties of silver. What was confirmed during the epidemic that hit the soldiers of Alexander the Great in 326 BC. Gastrointestinal upsets did not allow the troops to be in shape. The fact is that ordinary soldiers, unlike the commanders who used water from silver vessels, quenched their thirst with water stored in tin dishes.

Gradually, the conscious use of silver compounds entered the lives of people, and already from the 18th century, the fight against pathogenic bacteria began to be conducted more successfully. But there were also difficulties in this matter. It is known that the dissolution of silver is very slow. In addition, its specific effect, as a bactericidal, fungicide and immunomodulating agent, is difficult to provide, since it depends on several factors. But, as often happens, the case helped. Alchemy doctors Jan Baptist van Helmont and Francis de la Boe Sylvie obtained crystals of silver nitrate. At the same time, it was found that the action became stronger and the cells of the tissues of animals and plants were badly damaged. In addition, these solutions are washed off very quickly and the effect of their exposure is very short. After some time, already at the beginning of the 20th century, German scientists obtained very small particles of this compound, and even covered with protein. And in 1902, the German chemist Karl Paal managed to create a substance consisting of particles of silver surrounded by protein ovalbumin from chicken eggs. And from that moment on, two drugs Collargol and Protargol (Klimovich E., 2014).

Positive and negative sides of silver proteinate

Any medicine exhibits both positive and negative effects. The positive properties of silver proteinate include its bactericidal activity in a certain concentration or difficulty in the growth of certain types of bacteria. Also important is the lack of addiction to it. Therefore, the tool is allowed to use for a long time. And the price is not very high.

As for the negative side, it is expressed in material accumulation, in which the substance is slowly excreted, and when used, it re-accumulates in the human body and can reach a toxic level. Through the blood, this chemical compound enters into various organs and tissues, and even into the cornea and lens of the eye. And with the accumulation in the body of more than one gram of silver, the patient may develop argyrosis disease. By the way, in the 30s of the last century, cases of argyrosis were recorded in America due to the use of drops that contained silver.Then, in the 1990s, there was again a jump in interest, although now it’s already in colloidal silver, which was even attributed to food additives. Accordingly, a recipe was not required for his vacation (E. Klimovich, 2014).

Pharmacodynamics

Silver protein has an antiseptic and anti-inflammatory effect on human tissues. It also has an astringent effect. Due to the dissociation of this chemical compound, silver ions are formed. They bind to bacterial DNA, as a result of which their reproduction eventually stops.

As for the development of the anti-inflammatory effect of this silver compound, it happens like this: first, a protective film is formed on the damaged tissue as a result of precipitation of the compound proteins. The film helps to reduce the sensitivity of the surface of tissues and helps the process of narrowing of blood vessels. As a result of all these actions, the inflammation reactions are inhibited and they stop. This chemical compound has a particularly active effect on Staphylococcus aureus, streptococci and also on moraxella from the genus of rod-shaped aerobic bacteria. As a result of the studies, it was found that silver proteinate, in addition to antimicrobial, also has an antiviral effect. It also exhibits an immunostimulating effect. As a result of studies of the effect of silver protein protein solution on cell cultures, inhibition of viral reproduction in infectious rhinotracheitis (IRT) and viral diarrhea (VD) was recorded. Used Protargol at a concentration of 0.25-0.5%. In addition, these same studies made it possible to identify the immunostimulating effect of silver solutions of proteinate. The virucidal effect of this chemical compound in the dosage form for injection on the causative agents of individual viral diseases has been proven by studies. Moreover, the antiviral properties of the solutions of silver preparations were evaluated in vitro. Direct contact was made with a suspension containing viruses. As a result of the studies, the antiviral effect of silver proteinate preparations and the possibility of using this agent in the form of injections were revealed (Krasochko P., 1990; Tretyakov V., 1994).

Now consider situations in which silver proteinate has proven itself.

Indications

Otolaryngological diseases.

But first, lets define and share the concepts of rhinitis and runny nose. And the thing is that in practice, a runny nose is called rhinitis. If a representative of the human race appears rhinitis, then the process of inflammation begins to develop. And the task of the sick person and the physician is the same: to find the cause of inflammation and determine the type. It is known that the nasal cavity in humans performs the function of an air filter. And in this cavity, mucus is systematically produced, which acts as a filter, as it captures everything that gets there, in particular dust and dirt, and, of course, all kinds of microorganisms in the air. In the case of pathological microorganisms, viruses, and also substances to which the person is hypersensitive, the mucus production increases and there is nothing left for it to do, how to start to flow out of the nose. So this process is called the common cold.

Rhinitis As mentioned above, rhinitis is an inflammation of the nasal mucosa. At the heart of its development is either an infection, or another factor - non-infectious. Various non-infectious factors can act as thermal, mechanical, and chemical stimuli. Consider the difference between two types of rhinitis. In acute rhinitis, the inflammatory process covers 2 nasal passages. The duration of acute rhinitis is from 7 to 10 days. Sometimes this type of rhinitis passes into another form - chronic.For this form of the disease persistent degenerative-dystrophic changes are characteristic: “islands” of compaction appear, and atrophy also occurs. There are problems with the sense of smell and sometimes there may also be minor bleeding. There are three types of chronic rhinitis: catarrhal, as well as hypertrophic and atrophic. Moreover, the most common types of rhinitis are colds and allergies.

To select the right medication for the treatment of the common cold, it is necessary to distinguish between viral rhinitis and bacterial rhinitis. In viral cases, discharge from the nose is light and plentiful. And these discharge is accompanied by itching and sneezing. If the immunity is high, then the viral runny nose ends completely after 14 days, and on the 7th day its symptoms are significantly weakened (Klimovich E., 2014).

There is another type of runny nose - ozena, or in another way - a runny nose. The causative agent in this case is Klebsiella osenae, which multiplies on the mucous membrane. It is because of this bacterium that the resulting crusts have a fetid odor. The peculiarity of this common cold is that the disease begins at a young age and immediately turns into a chronic form (Shabanov A. Medical Assistant Handbook. 1975).

But it is very important to know how one type of rhinitis differs from another in order to start therapy correctly and in a timely manner.

Determination of the type of rhinitis. Since a runny nose is not a disease, but one of its manifestations, it is necessary to find out the cause and begin treatment. It is known that in their manifestations allergic and colds runny nose are very similar. But rhinitis of a colds character disappears after treatment within 5-7 days, and allergic, if contact with the allergen is not eliminated, does not go away.

The reasons for the development of rhinitis, as mentioned above, are several, and depending on this, it can be of the following types: colds, allergies, and vasomotors. And if a cold type develops when either bacteria or viruses enter the respiratory system, then the allergic type appears in humans against the background of hypersensitivity to certain substances, in other words, allergens. A vasomotor type of rhinitis develops in a person with a violation of the tone of the vessels located in the nose. It must be emphasized that the most common types are colds and allergic rhinitis.

Sinusitis Sinusitis is of four types. Distinguish: acute, chronic, exudative and productive. Common to all sinusitis is the dimming of the sinuses, which is formed due to a decrease in the volume of air in them, it can be seen on an x-ray.

With inflammation in all the sinuses, but either unilateral or bilateral, pansinusitis is already being said.

In general, the name of the disease is associated with the site of sinus involvement. Sinusitis - maxillary sinus maxillary sinus is affected (Shabanova A. Medical Assistants Handbook, 1975). Lesions of other sinuses: frontal sinusitis, ethmoiditis, sphenoiditis. With inflammation of the frontal sinus in a person, they are already talking about frontal sinusitis. The trellised labyrinth is struck - this is ethmoiditis. Moreover, ethmoiditis most often acts not as an independent disease, but usually joins either sinusitis or frontal sinusitis. But the inflammatory process of the sphenoid sinus speaks of sphenoiditis.

Pharyngitis. Acute pharyngitis. Most often observed with acute catarrh of the nose. This type of pharyngitis is characterized by mild soreness, and dryness and soreness are felt in the throat. The mucous membrane of the pharynx in some places is covered with mucus with pus, it is hyperemic and individual follicles protruding in the form of red grains are visible on it.

Chronic pharyngitis is catarrhal, hypertrophic and atrophic (Petrovsky B. BME, t. 22, 1984).

Other diseases used Protargol. It is prescribed for inflammation of the eyes, middle ear and adenoids. It is also shown in newborns with blepharitis. Effective with conjunctivitis. As for gynecology and urology, here he is also prescribed.In particular, with cystitis, vaginitis and urethritis.

Application. Dosage

Protargol only applied topically. According to the instructions, it is allowed to instill drops of the drug into the ears and nose. Using Protargola in colds, it is advisable to lubricate it with thuja oil to prevent extensive dryness of the nasal mucosa (Klimovich E., 2014).

In urology and gynecology, solutions of this substance can be injected into the vagina and in the anus. In this case, tampons are used. The drug is also prescribed in the form of solutions for douching.

Ophthalmology. Use drops in the form of 1 or 2% solution. Instill 2-3 drops 2-3 times a day.

Urology. The necessary procedures are carried out with 2% r-rum of silver proteinate.

Otolaryngology. It is used in solutions with an active substance content of 1–2%.

Rhinitis, pharyngitis and otitis media: 3-5 drops 2 times a day.

Contraindications

The drug is contraindicated Protargol in the following case: with hypersensitivity to both silver and proteins. Do not prescribe during pregnancy.

Side effects

Perhaps slight irritation. Rarely, mild burning and itching. But there may also be redness of the eye protein if the silver proteinate solution is presented in the form of eye drops. Sometimes there may be a feeling of numbness and drowsiness. Anaphylactic shock and Quinckes edema are extremely rare.

Interaction with other drugs

Does not interact with other drugs. An exception is other silver preparations.

special instructions

The number of days of treatment with this drug is mainly 5 days (child) and 7 days - adult. With a longer period of use, silver proteins begin to accumulate in the human body, so they should not use the drug for longer. When using this medicine, you need to rinse your nose before instilling it, clean it of mucus or dry crusts. The prepared solution of silver proteinate should be stored only in orange bottles and in places where the sun does not penetrate. In addition, it is necessary that the interval between instillation procedures be the same (E. Klimovich, 2014).

Dosage Forms Protargola.

The drug is mainly used in the form of finished dosage forms.

1. Powder Protargol for solution for intranasal use 0.2 g, vial with solvent in a disposable container 10 ml.

2. Protargol drops ear / nasal 2% 10 ml in a bottle.

3. Protargol Baby: powder Protargola 0.1 g, the solvent is water for injection 10 ml in a single dose container.

From the foregoing, we can conclude that the drug Protargol both pharmacy production and factory production, if it is used according to the instructions and does not violate the duration of the course of treatment, gives positive dynamics in the treatment of the patient.

Tags: Protargol® [Silver proteinate]