Diseases of the respiratory system can be inflammatory, infectious, allergic, acute and chronic. The scheme of therapy used in a particular case depends on the type of pathology. Most often, biological agents - viruses and bacteria - cause dysfunction of the respiratory system, while mixed forms of infection caused by several types of pathogens are common. Treatment of respiratory diseases should be aimed at eliminating the cause of the disease, correcting symptoms and restoring the function of the affected organs. It is necessary to take into account the individual characteristics of the organism, the anatomical structure of the respiratory apparatus and functional disorders in it.
For the treatment of diseases of the respiratory system, the following groups of drugs are used:
Antibacterial and antiviral agents are prescribed for various infections. They are divided into bacteriostatic - inhibiting the growth of microorganisms and bactericidal - destroying them;
Mucolytic agents - liquefy phlegm and promote its excretion;
Bronchodilators - expand the lumen of the bronchi, facilitate breathing;
Cough suppressants are medicines that act on the cough center of the brain and are prescribed for a debilitating cough;
According to indications, antihypertensive and diuretic drugs (with a threat of pulmonary edema), pain relievers and other drugs are also prescribed. In emergency situations, surgical methods are used
Treatment of diseases of the respiratory system is mainly aimed at thinning sputum, reducing its amount, improving its excretion from the respiratory tract, relieving spasm of the muscles of the bronchi and expanding their lumen, eliminating the inflammatory process, and normalizing gas exchange.
The main areas of care for patients suffering from respiratory system pathology:
Etiotropic therapy is the limitation or elimination of the action of the cause that provokes the appearance of symptoms. For example, removal of a foreign body, destruction of pathogenic microorganisms, removal of bronchial obstruction, etc.;
Pathogenetic therapy - aimed at weakening the mechanisms leading to the development of specific symptoms;
Symptomatic therapy - elimination of the manifestations of the disease and improvement of the patient's condition;
Sanogenetic therapy - restoration of lung function and normalization of metabolic processes.
In addition, it is necessary to prescribe immunomodulators, restorative therapy, and take vitamins and microelements. Methods of physiotherapy, spa and sanatorium treatment are effective.
The duration of treatment for diseases of the respiratory system depends on the diagnosis, the severity of the pathology and the general condition of the patient.