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Pediculosis is a fairly common disease. Several billion people worldwide are at constant risk of contracting this disease.
Head lice spreads through contact with a patient or through personal hygiene items: combs, hair brushes, hats. A louse can crawl from one head to another in a train carriage, in a store, on the beach, in the pool.
And although everyone has long known well that head lice is a social disease, firmly associated with the observance of the rules of personal and public hygiene, the cause of the disease still remains a mystery.
It is impossible to get lice from animals, since these parasites are species-specific, that is, human lice can only live on humans !!!
It is a mistake to believe that lice are found in people who neglect the rules of personal hygiene. It has been proven that these insects prefer healthy and clean hair over dirty hair. Therefore, no one is insured against head lice, regardless of their financial situation and compliance with hygiene rules.
There are 3 types of lice - body lice, head lice and pubic lice, respectively, and their favorite places for laying eggs are subdivided:
a) head lice settle at the roots of the hair,
b) clothes - in the folds and seams of clothes,
c) pubic - on pubic hair and other areas of the skin covered with hair.
Mixed head lice can also occur when there is a mixed type of infestation (eg head lice and body lice at the same time).
a) Head lice (Pediculus Humanus Capitis) - insect transparent or grayish-yellow and red when drunk with blood.
The lice have 6 legs equipped with pincers that allow them to firmly attach to the hair.
Females reach a size of 4 mm and males 2 mm. For 20-30 days, the female can lay up to 10 eggs per day. Lice eggs (nits) are deposited near the scalp itself and are firmly attached to the hair root with the help of a sticky secretion secreted by the female. A small louse hatches after 8-10 days. After 10-15 days, the louse becomes an adult and is completely ready to reproduce its own kind.
They parasitize mainly in the area of the temples and the back of the head.
Nits are lice eggs, small balls (0.7-0.8 mm), yellow-white, securely attached to the hair shaft, thanks to a special sticky mass produced by the female lice (often parasitized in children). Very often, it is a large number of nits that is the main diagnostic criterion - since it is quite difficult to notice the louse itself in thick hair.
Lice and nits are found in the lesions. Infection occurs through close contact with the patient or through personal belongings (clothes, hats, combs, and even soft toys). They migrate most actively when a person's body temperature rises due to illness, physical activity, overheating in hot weather. Lice do not tolerate heat well. As a result, they move to the ends of the hair and, easily detaching from them, in some cases find a new owner. According to statistics, children and women are more likely to get sick.
The waste products of head lice and their bites cause severe and constant itching, scratching, dermatitis, eczematization phenomena on the scalp, the addition of a secondary pyococcal infection in the form of impetigo, folliculitis, and boils. A secondary bacterial infection with abscesses and purulent-hemorrhagic crusts quickly enough joins, and also suffers a terrible disease - typhus.
In advanced cases, lice can settle in the beard, mustache, eyelashes and eyebrows. Mats appear in the hair - thick, foul-smelling tufts of hair glued tightly with pus and exudate. Regional lymph nodes enlarge and become painful. The manifestations of dermatitis and pyoderma can spread to the face, ears, neck, and upper torso.