ARVI (acute respiratory viral infection) is a disease of the respiratory tract caused by the ingestion of a viral infection. Among the pathogens, the most common are influenza viruses, parainfluenza, adenoviruses and rhinoviruses.
The affected area of ARVI includes - nose, paranasal sinuses, throat, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs. The conjunctiva (mucous membrane of the eye) is also under the "sight".
ARVI disease is one of the most common infectious diseases. Most of all, children attending kindergarten and school are ill with it - up to 10 times a year. This is due to the not yet formed immunity, close contact with each other, lack of knowledge and / or unwillingness to comply with preventive measures to avoid infection. Other groups at risk are students, teachers, office workers, health workers and others. However, adults usually suffer less from acute respiratory diseases of viral etiology, which is associated with the formed immune system, as well as its resistance to these diseases due to other past diseases. However, even if an adult is not susceptible to the development of this infection in the body, and he does not have obvious signs of the disease, he may simply be a carrier of the infection, infecting everyone around him.
SARS is transmitted mainly by airborne droplets (when sneezing, coughing, close conversation), however, infection is possible through direct contact with the pathogen (kissing, shaking hands and further contact of the hands with the oral cavity) or contact with objects of the carrier of the infection (dishes, clothes). When a person gets an infection, he immediately becomes a carrier. At the first signs of ARVI (general malaise, weakness, runny nose), the patient begins to infect everyone around him. As a rule, the first blow is taken by relatives, workers, people in transport. This is the reason for the recommendation - at the first signs of ARVI, the patient should stay at home, and healthy people, if the media report an outbreak of this disease, avoid staying in crowded places (public transport, holiday gatherings on the street, etc.).
During a person's contact with an infection, the virus initially settles on the mucous membrane of the upper respiratory tract (nose, nasopharynx, mouth), its potential victim. Further, the infection begins to secrete toxins, which are absorbed into the circulatory system and are carried by the blood throughout the body. When the patient's body temperature rises, this indicates that the infection has already entered the circulatory system and the protective functions of the body have been activated, because the increased temperature actually destroys the virus and its derived toxins.
The incubation period for acute respiratory viral infection is about 2 days, i.e. from getting the virus to the mucous membrane and until the first symptoms of the disease appear. At this time, a person may feel a slight malaise, irritability. Further, as infection progresses, the symptoms intensify.
After an illness, immunity does not develop resistance to ARVI, which is due to a large number of different viruses and their strains. Moreover, viruses are susceptible to mutation. This leads to the fact that an adult can get ARVI up to 4 times a year.