In dermatology, agents used for topical treatment are grouped according to their therapeutic agents; these include:
astringents (drying agents that release proteins that promote skin contraction and contraction);
Desiccants as well as superabsorbent powders
moisturizers (emollients, moisturizers and skin softeners);
keratolytics (softening, cleansing and facilitating exfoliation of squamous cells of the epidermis)
For a particular topical treatment, success may depend on:
The bases on the basis of which the product is made
The type of dressing used
External preparations can be used in different bases, which include:
Mixtures of liquid and oil
The base affects the effectiveness of the treatment and can itself cause side effects (for example, contact dermatitis or irritant dermatitis). Usually, water-based and alcohol-based preparations are drying due to the evaporation of liquid and are used for acute inflammatory diseases. Powders are also drying agents. Oil-based formulations moisturize the skin and are preferred for chronic inflammation. When choosing the basis of the drug, they are guided by the localization of application, cosmetic effect and ease of use.
Inert powders can be mixed with active substances (eg, antifungal) to give them a therapeutic effect. These funds are prescribed for use in rashes in areas of irritation or on areas of skin with high humidity.
Baths and lotions
Baths and lotions are used when it is necessary to apply the drug to large areas of the skin, as, for example, with common contact dermatitis or atopic dermatitis.
Foams are aerosols based on alcohol or emollients. They are generally rapidly absorbed and used primarily on hairy areas of the body.
Solutions are drugs dissolved in a solvent, usually ethyl alcohol, propylene glycol, polyethylene glycol, or water. The solutions are convenient for application (especially on the scalp for diseases such as psoriasis or seborrhea), but they have a drying effect. The two most commonly used solutions are Burov's solution and Domeboro's solution.
Lotions are an aqueous emulsion. They are easily applied to areas of skin with thick hair growth. Lotions cool and dry areas with acute inflammation and exudation, such as contact dermatitis, dermatophytosis of the feet and inguinal ringworm.
Gels are a suspension of a drug in a solvent thickened with polymers. Gels are often more effective for the controlled release of active ingredients in topical formulations. They are often used for acne, rosacea, and scalp psoriasis.
Combination bases usually contain oil and water, but may also contain propylene or polyethylene glycol.
Creams are a semi-solid emulsion of oil and water. Creams are used for moisturizing and cooling, as well as in the presence of exudation. They are absorbed into the skin when rubbed in.
Ointments are based on oil (such as petroleum jelly) with little or no water. Ointments are good lubricants and improve the penetration of the drug into the skin due to their occlusive properties; a certain concentration of the drug, as a rule, has a more pronounced effect when introduced into an ointment base. The use of ointments is preferable for lichenified rashes and lesions covered with thick crusts or accumulations of scales, including psoriasis lichen simplex chronicus. With erosions and ulcers, ointments irritate the skin less than creams. They are generally best applied after bathing or moisturizing your skin with water.