Asthma can be contracted at any age. There are so-called internal risk factors for bronchial asthma (BA), for example, increased sensitivity of the bronchi to various irritants (cold air, odors, etc.), obesity. The most important role is played by a genetic predisposition, which the person was not aware of. It is known that the presence of bronchial asthma in one of the parents doubles the risk of the disease, and in both parents - increases the risk fourfold. Predisposing genes can be compared to the combination lock of a disease that remains hidden until a certain code is entered. Such a code is external factors provocateurs of bronchial asthma (allergens, respiratory infections, various occupational hazards, tobacco smoke, drugs, stress, hormonal changes in the body), which can appear at any age.
For the treatment of bronchial asthma, two categories of drugs are used: drugs for the rapid relief of symptoms (ambulance drugs) and therapeutic agents (basic, planned therapy). The first category includes short-acting substances with bronchodilating properties, which, as a rule, are delivered to the bronchi using an inhaler. These include salbutamol, fenoterol, berotec, berodual, ipraterol, etc. These medications only relieve asthma symptoms, they do not cure the disease. Medicines of the second group are not intended (with a few exceptions) to quickly "relieve" symptoms, are not used "on demand", the purpose of their use is to influence inflammation, that is, the treatment of bronchial asthma. These drugs are used daily, for a long time in those dosages and with the frequency indicated by the attending physician. The decision to change the dosage or cancel these drugs can only be made by a doctor.
The drugs for the routine therapy of asthma include inhalation hormones (ICS) and non-hormonal drugs (antileukotrienes, theophylline, long-acting bronchodilators, various classes of antibodies). ICS (hormonal drugs) are currently the most effective drugs and constitute the first line of therapy. With regular use, it relieves symptoms, improves lung function, reduces the need for emergency medications and the risk of exacerbations, and improves quality of life. When using ICS in recommended dosages, a local effect on the bronchi occurs, the drugs are not absorbed, do not have systemic effects, like hormonal pills or injections. All other drugs are second-line drugs for planned BA therapy, which have either less efficacy and influence on the prognosis, or severe side effects, or are used only for severe uncontrolled BA according to strict indications.